A Good Thesis Statement For Epilepsy
Epilepsy is a medical disorder marked by recurrent, unprovoked seizures.
Therefore, repeated seizures with an identified provocation (eg, alcohol withdrawal) do not constitute epilepsy.
Video-EEG monitoring is the standard test for classifying the type of seizure or syndrome or to diagnose pseudoseizures (ie, to establish a definitive diagnosis of spells with impairment of consciousness).
This technique is also used to characterize the type of seizure and epileptic syndrome to optimize pharmacologic treatment and for presurgical workup.
Epileptic seizures are only one manifestation of neurologic or metabolic diseases.
Epileptic seizures have many causes, including a genetic predisposition for certain types of seizures, head trauma, stroke, brain tumors, alcohol or drug withdrawal, repeated episodes of metabolic insults, such as hypoglycemia, and other conditions.
The clinical signs or symptoms of seizures depend on the location of the epileptic discharges in the cerebral cortex and the extent and pattern of the propagation of the epileptic discharge in the brain.
Thus, seizure symptoms are highly variable, but for most patients with 1 focus, the symptoms are usually very stereotypic.
Although some anticonvulsants (eg, lamotrigine, topiramate, valproic acid, zonisamide) have multiple mechanisms of action, and some (eg, phenytoin, carbamazepine, ethosuximide) have only one known mechanism of action, anticonvulsant agents can be divided into large groups based on their mechanisms, as follows: The 2 major kinds of brain surgery for epilepsy are palliative and potentially curative.Epilepsy is defined as a brain disorder characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by the neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of this condition.The clinical signs and symptoms of seizures depend on the location of the epileptic discharges in the cerebral cortex and the extent and pattern of the propagation of the epileptic discharge in the brain.Physical examination helps in the diagnosis of specific epileptic syndromes that cause abnormal findings, such as dermatologic abnormalities (eg, patients with intractable generalized tonic-clonic seizures for years are likely to have injuries requiring stitches).The clinical diagnosis can be confirmed by abnormalities on the interictal EEG, but these abnormalities could be present in otherwise healthy individuals, and their absence does not exclude the diagnosis of epilepsy.Some clinicians also diagnose epilepsy when 1 unprovoked seizure occurs in the setting of a predisposing cause, such as a focal cortical injury, or a generalized interictal discharge occurs that suggests a persistent genetic predisposition.(See Clinical Presentation.) Seizures are the manifestation of abnormal hypersynchronous or hyperexcitable discharges of cortical neurons.The use of a vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) for palliative therapy in patients with intractable atonic seizures has reduced the need for anterior callosotomy.Lobectomy and lesionectomy are among several possible curative surgeries.Epilepsy welcomes submissions of the following article types: Brief Research Report, Case Report, Clinical Trial, Correction, Editorial, Hypothesis and Theory, Methods, Mini Review, Opinion, Original Research, Perspective, Review, Study Protocol and Systematic Review.All manuscripts must be submitted directly to the section Epilepsy, where they are peer-reviewed by the Associate and Review Editors of the specialty section.