Augmentation Research Papers
One of the main advantages of EEG (Niedermeyer and da Silva, 2005; Luck, 2014) is that it has very good temporal resolution, is relatively inexpensive (compared to other non-invasive recording technologies) and is portable and practical to use, an aspect that is very important when considering the usability outside the lab for cognitive augmentation. f MRI measures brain activity by detecting changes in the blood flow (hemodynamic response) in the brain (Logothetis et al., 2001; Buxton, 2009). “A collaborative BCI approach to autonomous control of a prosthetic limb system,” in IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (San Diego, CA), 1479–1482. It has much better spatial resolution than EEG, but temporal resolution is low. Such processes encompass attention, the formation of knowledge, memory, judgement and evaluation, reasoning and computation, problem solving and decision making, as well as the comprehension and production of language. For these reasons, unlike previous efforts, here we choose to review applications of these technologies by the cognitive function they augment (more on this below). In section 2, we survey the main neuroscience technologies for both observing and influencing brain activity, which are necessary ingredients for human cognitive augmentation. “Detection of anticipatory brain potentials during car driving,” in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE (San Diego, CA: IEEE), 3829–3832. Particularly, we consider human enhancement applications in the areas of communication, cognitive enhancement, memory, decision making, attention monitoring/enhancement, situation awareness, social interactions, and complex problem solving. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2004.834629 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Khaliliardali, Z., Chavarriaga, R., Gheorghe, L. We cover some of the cognitive augmentation technology (language in particular) aimed at restoring lost functions in severely disable individuals, as those technologies may one day develop to the point of augmenting able-bodied and able-minded people. These are important because they may differentially influence both present and future research on (and adoption of) neurotechnologies for human cognitive augmentation: an inferior technology with no significant ethical issues may thrive while a superior technology causing widespread ethical concerns may end up being outlawed. Computer control using human intracortical local field potentials. Based on the lessons learnt in our analysis and using past trends as predictors of future ones, in section 5 we attempt to forecast the most likely future developments of neuroscience technology and provide informed recommendations for promising future research and exploitation avenues.
In this paper, we will focus on a subset of means for human augmentation—neuroscience technologies—and only on one particular area—human cognitive enhancement.
Secondly, we chart the state of the art on neurotechnologies for human cognitive augmentation, keeping an eye both on the applications that already exist and those that are emerging or are likely to emerge in the next two decades. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2014.00025 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Krause, B., Márquez-Ruiz, J., and Cohen Kadosh, R. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation: a role for cortical excitation/inhibition balance?
Thirdly, we briefly review the ethical issues associated with current neuroscience technologies.
These are important because they may differentially influence both present and future research on (and adoption of) neurotechnologies for human cognitive augmentation: an inferior technology with no significant ethical issues may thrive while a superior technology causing widespread ethical concerns may end up being outlawed. Pub Med Abstract | Google Scholar Krause, B., and Cohen Kadosh, R. Not all brains are created equal: the relevance of individual differences in responsiveness to transcranial electrical stimulation.