Brown Bear Research Paper Archaeology Term Paper
The end of legal and widespread persecution, strict protection measures, and reintroductions have allowed brown bear Ursus arctos populations to recover and expand in many areas of North America and Europe.
Currently, brown bears are estimated to exceed 200,000 individuals worldwide, most of which live in Russia (~100,000), whereas North America and Europe are home to around 58,000 and 15,400 brown bears, respectively.
and hereafter North America, n = 183), Centre (i.e. Russia, Iran and Turkey, hereafter East, n = 190), for which at least information regarding the year was available (Fig. We also recorded an additional 61 cases of attacks from the published literature (4 cases in Albania, 11 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 9 in Macedonia, 2 in Nepal and 35 in Japan), which we did not include in the analyses due to the lack of sufficient information. Among all large terrestrial and aquatic predators, attacks by brown bears are the most highly covered by the international media, this species has the power to attract amplified attention of mass media, which has the potential to negatively impact public attitude. Several studies have investigated attacks on humans by brown bears at local scales, suggesting a general increase in the number of incidents over the years in different regions of the world (e.g.). Understanding global patterns of bear attacks can help reduce dangerous encounters and, consequently, is crucial for informing wildlife managers and the public about appropriate measures to reduce this kind of conflicts in bear country.. Indeed, when they do occur, attacks on humans elicit considerable media attention, which can lead people to overestimate the risk of an attack and, eventually, cause negative public reactions and opposition towards conservation actions. Although the number of bears is growing globally, several small subpopulations are still endangered and, in several cases, their location in close proximity to highly humanized areas leads to increased negative interactions with humans. These conflicts might be even more severe in areas of recent expansion and reintroduction, where bears had previously been extirpated. 2; Supplementary Tables S1 and S2; Supplementary Fig. Attacked people were almost exclusively adults (99%; Supplementary Fig. As for the other activities, 28% (n = 158) of the attacked people were working outside, i.e. S1), with most of the attacks occurring in summer (48%; Supplementary Fig. farming, guarding livestock, or logging (n = 104), or doing wildlife-related fieldwork (n = 12), and 22% (n = 123) were hunting (Fig. Attacks that occurred during bear hunts (n = 27) were concentrated in a few countries/states (Sweden, Finland, Alaska and Russia). Additionally, when using negative framing and graphic contents to describe an attack, the media does not help to correctly inform people on how to avoid encountering large carnivores and how to behave in case of an encounter, but it rather unnecessary alarms the public about a phenomenon that is actually very rare. Because one of the most important ways to minimize this type of conflict is to gain a deeper understanding of the circumstances triggering large carnivore attacks, as well as of potential factors associated with such incidents, it is extremely important to provide managers and the public with accurate and objective knowledge to reduce their occurrence.