Childhood Onset Bipolar Disorder Research Papers

Differences include the sampling or recruitment strategy employed (clinical/community; offspring of one affected parent/two affected parents), the type of assessment (self/observer rated) and the time frame for assessments (cross-sectional/longitudinal; retrospective/prospective).

However, studies of high-risk individuals employ many different methodologies, which can complicate cross-study comparisons.For example, offspring studies in bipolar disorder that included children of chronically medically ill parents as controls have shown high levels of psychopathology in the control group as well as in the familial-risk group (e.g. It is important to take this methodological heterogeneity into account, as it does appear to influence the reported findings (in parents and offspring).For example, proband parents identified from clinical settings and neurobiological studies had fewer lifetime comorbid diagnoses than those recruited through publicity campaigns, and their socioeconomic status was closer to that reported in community samples, patient contacts with psychiatric services and natural history studies.Studies published over the past 20 years have reported comparable rates of lifetime DSM Axis 1 disorders and similar increases in the prevalence of affective and non-affective psychopathology in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder compared with offspring of parents without it (controls).However, areas of divergence include the spectrum and prevalence of the psychopathologies observed, the rates and types of comorbidity and the estimated ages at onset of bipolar or other disorders.In contrast, diagnosis in solely cross-sectional studies relies heavily on assessments that evaluate the presence or absence of psychopathology on the basis of standardised structured interviews, often conducted by research assistants (Chang 2000; Birmaher 2009, 2010).Some studies employ non-standardised or semi-structured interviews, although these are often carried out by experienced clinicians in clinical rather than community samples (Klein 1985; Grigoriou-Serbanescu 1989; Hammen 1990).The mean age of offspring groups included in studies also varies widely (from 3 to 17 years), rendering direct interview assessment of offspring difficult in the youngest samples and placing excessive reliance on retrospective assessment of any early childhood psychopathology in the older recruits.Likewise, the nature of the control group also influences findings.‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

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