Compare And Contrast Two Theories Of Personality Essay Proper Business Plan
Trait theories of personality imply personality is biologically based, whereas state theories such as Bandura's (1977) Social Learning Theory emphasize the role of nurture and environmental influence.
Sigmund Freud's psychodynamic theory of personality assumes there is an interaction between nature (innate instincts) and nurture (parental influences).
"Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristics behavior and thought" (Allport, 1961, p. “The characteristics or blend of characteristics that make a person unique” (Weinberg & Gould, 1999).
The idiographic view assumes that each person has a unique psychological structure and that some traits are possessed by only one person; and that there are times when it is impossible to compare one person with others.
Personality and mental health problems in adulthood can usually be traced back to the first five years.
People – including children – are basically hedonistic – they are driven to seek pleasure by gratifying the Id’s desires (Freud, 1920).
It consists of all the inherited (i.e., biological) components of personality, including the sex (life) instinct – Eros (which contains the libido), and aggressive (death) instinct - Thanatos.
Freud (1923) saw the personality structured into three parts (i.e., tripartite), the id, ego, and superego (also known as the psyche), all developing at different stages in our lives.Through this position, he compiled a battery of questions about behavior, which he later applied to 700 soldiers who were being treated for neurotic disorders at the hospital (Eysenck (1947).He found that the soldiers' answers seemed to link naturally with one another, suggesting that there were a number of different personality traits which were being revealed by the soldier's answers.Sources of pleasure are determined by the location of the libido (life-force).Environmental and parental experiences during childhood influence an individual's personality during adulthood.It is presumed that individuals differ in their traits due to genetic differences.These theories are sometimes referred to a psychometric theories, because of their emphasis on measuring personality by using psychometric tests.Personality development depends on the interplay of instinct and environment during the first five years of life.Parental behavior is crucial to normal and abnormal development.People differ in their positions along a continuum in the same set of traits.We must also consider the influence and interaction of nature (biology, genetics, etc.) and nurture (the environment, upbringing) with respect to personality development.