Development Of First-Year Students' Conceptions Of Essay Writing Literacy Homework Year 1
Portfolios capitalize on students' natural tendency to save work and become an effective way to get them to take a second look and think about how they could improve future work.As any teacher or student can confirm, this method is a clear departure from the old write, hand in, and forget mentality, where first drafts were considered final products. Although there is no single correct way to develop portfolio programs, in all of them students are expected to collect, select, and reflect.And unlike separate tests, they supplement rather than take time away from instruction.Moreover, many teachers, educators, and researchers believe that portfolio assessments are more effective than "old-style" tests for measuring academic skills and informing instructional decisions. Students have been stuffing assignments in notebooks and folders for years, so what's so new and exciting about portfolios?Recent changes in education policy, which emphasize greater teacher involvement in designing curriculum and assessing students, have also been an impetus to increased portfolio use.Portfolios are valued as an assessment tool because, as representations of classroom-based performance, they can be fully integrated into the curriculum.While the primary purpose of portfolios for most teachers is to engage students, support good curricula and instruction, and improve student teaming, some portfolio programs are designed to serve other purposes as well.For example, portfolios can be used to involve parents in their children's education programs and to report individual student progress.
Parents are generally more receptive if the traditional tests to which they are accustomed are not being eliminated.When they are used for this purpose, fairness requires that standards be developed to specify the types of work that can be included and the criteria used to evaluate the work.Guidelines may also address issues of teacher or peer involvement in revising draft work or in deciding on what to identify as a best piece. Portfolios are collections of student work representing a selection of performance.Portfolios in classrooms today are derived from the visual and performing arts tradition in which they serve to showcase artists' accomplishments and personally favored works.For example, in writing instruction, portfolios can function to illustrate the range of assignments, goals, and audiences for which a student produced written material.In addition, portfolios can be a record of the activities undertaken over time in the development of written products.The age/grade level of students may determine how portfolios are developed and used.For example, in developing criteria for judging good writing, older students are more likely to be able to help determine the criteria by which work is selected, perhaps through brainstorming sessions with the teacher and other students.Also, older students often expand their portfolios beyond written material to include photographs or videos of peer review sessions, science experiments, performances, or exhibits.Administrative contexts also influence the structure and use of portfolios.