Equal Opportunities Legislation Essay How To Write A Restaurant Business Plan
Indeed, even as black intellectuals and artists thrived during the years of the Harlem Renaissance and as African-Americans migrated to Northern industrial cities from the South in greater numbers, racial violence and injustice became even more entrenched.The American stock market crash in October, 1929, and the ensuing Great Depression devastated African-Americans, who were disproportionately employed in the hard-hit agricultural sector of the economy.Significantly, blacks and women were vital to the nation's wartime industries which produced the munitions, planes, ships, tanks and other equipment necessary in the prosecution of the war.World War II forced Americans to look more carefully at their own record on race and civil rights and further raised the expectations of African-Americans. Meanwhile the NAACP continued its litigation strategy.It would take two world wars and an economic depression to bring the nation forward, and to hold Americans to the ideals of liberty and equality that form the foundation of our republic. Although just two decades earlier the United States Supreme Court had declared in the case of Plessy v.In 1910, the noted African-American sociol- ogist W. Ferguson that the forced segregation of blacks was constitutional as long as they were given "equal" facilities, the NAACP was committed to the strategy of using litigation to widen opportunities and address racial injustice.However, the broader society was still ill-prepared for meaningful advances in civil rights.
With these Civil War Amendments and Congress' Reconstruction program, there was, for the first time in our history, a chance to bring about a more racially just society.
Despite the importance of African-Americans to Roosevelt's political coalition, little actual progress was made in the area of civil rights during the 1930s.
Roosevelt steadfastly declined to endorse federal anti-lynching laws, and much of the legislation aimed at alleviating the effects of the Depression excluded African-Americans.
Roosevelt responded by issuing an executive order which forbade government contractors from discriminating in hiring or wages based on race, and Randolph called off the march on Washington.
As they had in World War I, African-American soldiers, sailors and airmen played a crucial role in the second World War, although again in segre-gated units.