Eu Competition Law Essays
Examples of legislation enshrining competition principles include the constitutiones juris metallici by Wenceslaus II of Bohemia between 12, condemning combination of ore traders increasing prices; the Municipal Statutes of Florence in 13 followed Zeno's legislation against state monopolies; and under Emperor Charles V in the Holy Roman Empire a law was passed "to prevent losses resulting from monopolies and improper contracts which many merchants and artisans made in the Netherlands".
In 1553, Henry VIII of England reintroduced tariffs for foodstuffs, designed to stabilize prices, in the face of fluctuations in supply from overseas.
The two largest and most influential systems of competition regulation are United States antitrust law and European Union competition law.
National and regional competition authorities across the world have formed international support and enforcement networks.
Zeno rescinded all previously granted exclusive rights. forestalling, the practice of buying up goods before they reach market and then inflating the prices) was one of three forfeitures that King Edward the Confessor could carry out through England.
fixed wages of artificers and workmen and decreed that foodstuffs should be sold at reasonable prices.
The history of competition law reaches back to the Roman Empire.Modern competition law has historically evolved on a country level to promote and maintain fair competition in markets principally within the territorial boundaries of nation-states.National competition law usually does not cover activity beyond territorial borders unless it has significant effects at nation-state level.The UK competition law system also includes innovative provisions on the criminalisation of cartel activity and the control of oligopolies through a system of market investigation references that may be emulated in other jurisdictions.A thorough understanding of all areas of EU and UK competition law will provide students from other jurisdictions a valuable perspective on their own competition law regimes.These obligations were not included in GATT, but in 1994, with the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of GATT Multilateral Negotiations, the World Trade Organization (WTO) was created.The Agreement Establishing the WTO included a range of limited provisions on various cross-border competition issues on a sector specific basis.The business practices of market traders, guilds and governments have always been subject to scrutiny, and sometimes severe sanctions.Since the 20th century, competition law has become global.Around this time organizations representing various tradesmen and handicrafts people, known as guilds had been developing, and enjoyed many concessions and exemptions from the laws against monopolies.The privileges conferred were not abolished until the Municipal Corporations Act 1835.