Free Online Publication Of Research Paper
A study published in 2010 showed that roughly 20% of the total number of peer-reviewed articles published in 2008 could be found openly accessible.
Another study found that by 2010, 7.9% of all academic journals with impact factors were gold open access journals and showed a broad distribution of Gold Open Access journals throughout academic disciplines.
Delayed open-access journals publish articles initially as subscription-only, then release them as free to read (but not to reuse, adapt and share, so not open access), typically after an embargo period (varying from months to years). Since they do not charge either readers or authors, such publishers often require funding from external sources such as academic institutions, learned societies, philanthropists or government grants.
Libre open access covers the kinds of open access defined in the Budapest Open Access Initiative, the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities.
Conventional (non-open access) journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as subscriptions, site licenses or pay-per-view charges.
Open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers, theses, This section should include a summary of, or be summarized in, History of open access.
The most commonly recognised names are "green", "gold", and "hybrid" open access; however a number of others terms are also used for additional models.
For example, most APC-free journals in Latin America are funded by higher education institutions and are not conditional on institutional affiliation for publication.There are a number of variants of open access publishing and different publishers may use one or more of these variants.Different open access types are currently commonly described using a colour system.In total, depending on area of research, region and publishing model, the average author-side fees (at list price) for gold open access articles in 2013-2018 ranged from less than 10 $ for articles published in Latin America or on the subject of history, to around 500 $ for computer science and technology, to around 2000 $ for biology.A 2013 study showed the practice of imposing APCs was higher in journals with a scientific or medical focus (43% and 47% respectively), and lowest in journals publishing in the arts and humanities (0% and 4% respectively).What remains unclear is how these APCs reflect the true cost of publication and are related to the value added by the publisher.It has been argued that publishers to some extent take the quality – as indicated by citation rates per paper – into account when pricing APCs, As of 2015, the average expenditure via subscriptions for a single research article is estimated to be around USD ,500–,000 (based on total amount spent divided by total number published), but production costs are highly variable by publisher.The emergence of open science or open research has brought to light a number of controversial and hotly-debated topics.Scholarly publishing invokes various positions and passions.Diamond OA refers to availability on the journal website without payment of any APCs, while Gold OA often requires payment of additional APCs for immediate access upon publication (i.e., all APC-based OA is gold OA, but not all Gold OA is APC-based).Bronze OA refers to articles made free-to-read on the publisher website, but without any explicit open license.