Heidegger Und Sartre An Essay On Being And Place A Level English Coursework

I am not ‘free’ either to escape the lot of my class, of my nation, of my family, or even to build up my own power or my fortune or to conquer my most insignificant appetites or habits.I am born a worker, a Frenchman, a hereditary syphilitic or a tubercular” (BN p.The term project is both a verb and noun and most basically refers to actions undertaken towards particular ends or possibilities.10 An example is a book project, the choice of the act of writing with the set possibility to complete a book.In its most general sense, a project encompasses life itself, including all our actions toward realising the possibilities of our choice.Hence it is “nothing” but contents of consciousness.12 Consequently, consciousness turns everything into “nothing”, nothing but meaning, which is the reason why Sartre equates consciousness with “nothingness” as opposed to “being”.This does not mean that consciousness turns everything into its own interiority, its inside project., which is that the human being is such that its being is an issue for itself.More particularly, humans are directed to things primarily as far as these things concern their own being and its possibilities.

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Sartre’s contention, that it is by choosing that we are free, does not mean that we choose to be free (p. This distinction is at the heart of Sartre’s phenomenology of freedom at the core of his monumental Sartre argues that freedom is not the product of choice, something we can choose to be or not to be, because it is rather a characteristic of what we are, as choosing conscious beings.As consciousness is intentional, it always transcends itself towards what is outside itself, so consciousness is actually out there in the world, abandoning itself to whatever it is directed to.In fact, as Sartre already argues in , even the attempt of consciousness (the cogito) to conceive of itself as consciousness consists in turning itself into its own object (the ego) such that it will transcend its interior operations to become an exterior object among objects for itself outside itself in the world.13 As such, consciousness, as it were, remains in free flow, being constantly drawn beyond itself to whatever exterior objects it is directed.In a way similar to Heidegger, Sartre’s phenomenology can be characterised as existential.This means that the human subject is directed to objects because of the possibilities it takes objects to have within the framework of its own projects (BN p. A subject is free by choosing its own projects, thus by choosing what to make of its world and itself.Sartre’s view of freedom has elicited a host of responses inside and outside philosophical literature, particularly within the framework of postcolonial discussions on ethics and politics, including contemporary scholars such as Taylor (1994), Appiah (2003), Alcoff (2006), Bernasconi (2007) and Gordon (1997, 2015), among others.Less attention has been paid to Sartre’s phenomenological approach to freedom, and, actually, his key respondent still remains his own contemporary, Maurice Merleau-Ponty.7 My focus is on the phenomenological analysis of Sartre’s view of freedom.503).1The question hence arises: How free are we from situations, particularly ones in which we are subject to collective identification?More exactly, how free are we from the situations—places, environments, histories, others—that we inevitably belong to, and which subject us to collective identities? But was not Sartre the major advocate of existential freedom, with the tenet that “we are condemned to be free”—no matter what our situation might be?The question hence arises: How free are we from the facticity of situations, particularly ones in which we are subject to collective identification?

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