Mcdonalds Case Study On Obesity Do You Need A Business Plan
Sources: Age-standardized mean BMI: Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group; Table 2 presents the results of multivariate panel analyses in which age-standardized mean BMI was the dependent variable.
Fast food consumption was positively and significantly associated with BMI (unadjusted : 0.0657; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.0433–0.0881).
Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Med Sci 1-C, Davis, CA 95616, United States of America (USA).b.
School of Sociology, Social Policy and Social Work, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland.c.
Similar results were found when we included Asian countries in the models.
We then used first-difference methods to estimate the same basic model developed in Table 2, results confirmed the robustness of the fixed effects estimates (: 0.0271; 95% CI: 0.0114–0.0427).
We also included as confounders time-invariant measures (2008) of the percentage of the population doing insufficient physical activity (i.e.
Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Health Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, USA. showed that participants who visited fast food restaurants more than twice a week at baseline and were still doing so at a follow-up 15 years later had gained an average of 4.5 kg.
However, in a recent ecological analysis, the density of Subway outlets, used as a marker of fast food penetration, was positively associated with the prevalence of obesity across 26 advanced economies.
The index is calculated as the mean of 10 subcomponents measuring different aspects of economic freedom, as determined from national laws and regulations as well as written questionnaires completed by experts and investors (Appendix C, available at:
We included in our analyses several potential confounders of the association between fast food and BMI: gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (expressed logarithmically in constant 2005 United States dollars, adjusted for purchasing power parity for comparability between countries); the proportion of the population living in urban areas; national population size; openness to trade (imports and exports as a percentage of GDP); foreign direct investment (FDI, or net inflows as a percentage of GDP); and a time-invariant (2008) measure of motor vehicles per 1000 people.