Memory Essay Conclusion Ideas For A Argumentative Essay
Short-term memory is the memory for a stimulus that lasts for a short while (Carlson, 2001).
In practical terms visual short-term memory is often used for a comparative purpose when one cannot look in two places at once but wish to compare two or more possibilities.
Similarly the word length effect indicates that memory span is higher for words with a shorter spoken duration; syllable length varying as long as the spoken duration remains relatively constant (Parkin, 1996).
This is similar to Miller’s chunking of information, if one were to assume that the spoken duration was a chunk of information and the syllable length was the bit of information.
Miller cites Hayes memory span experiment as evidence for his limiting span.However an apparent contradiction to this is the fact that, if an English word is worth around 10 bits and only 23 bits could be remembered then only 2-3 words could be remembered at any one time, obviously incorrect.The limiting span can better be understood in terms of the assimilation of bits into chunks.However 6 learned pairs could be recalled as successfully as 6 pre-exposed singleton words (Chen & Cowan, 2005).This suggested a different mechanism for recall depending on the circumstances.Similarly, but actually distinguished quite definitively by Cowan, are techniques such as the requirement to repeat a separate word during the target stimulus presentation, which acts to prevent rehearsal.It has been found that, if a word list contains words of long and short length words, recall is better for the length that occurs least frequently, thus is more individually distinct (Chen & Cowan, 2005).The challenge has come from results such as those from Chen and Cowan, in which the predicted results from an experiment were that immediate serial recall of absolute numbers of singleton words would be the same as the number of chunks of learned pair words.However in fact it was found that the same number of pre-exposed singleton words was recalled as the number of words within learned pairs - eg 8 words (presented as 8 singletons or 4 learned pairs).Miller distinguishes between bits and chunks of information, the distinction being that a chunk is made up of multiple bits of information.It is interesting to note that whilst there is a finite capacity to remember chunks of information, the amount of bits in each of those chunks can vary widely (Miller, 1956).