Problem Solving Concepts
In fisheries, managing for maximal sustainable yield often produces large variations in both yields and stock abundance (May 1980), making overexploitation and population collapse more likely A SCIENTIFIC FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM-SOLVING 107 TABLE 2 Some Common Cntena for Identifying Important Issues and Valued Ecosystem Components in Impact Assessment Legal requirements Air and water quality standards Public health Rare, threatened, and endangered species Protected areas or habitats Aesthetic values Landscape appeal Attractive communities Appealing species (e,g., large ungulates, colorful birds, cacti) Species at higher trophic levels (e.g., eagles and tigers) Clear air and water .Economic concerns Species or habitats of recreational or commercial interest Ecosystem components Environmental values and concerns Ecosystem rarity or uniqueness Sensitivity of species or ecosystems to stress Ecosystem " naturalness " Genetic resources Ecosystem services Recovery potential of ecosystems "Keystone" species than more conservative management would (e.g., Murphy, 19771.
This chapter presents a general framework for identifying, scoping, and planning studies of en- vironmental problems.
Har- vesting or managing populations over long periods can also produce un- desired cumulative genetic changes (Chapter 11.
SCOPING THE PROBLEM Scoping involves bringing together all interested parties public, busi- ness, government, and scientific so that they can interact and express their views before major actions or studies are initiated (Council on En- vironmental Quality, 19781.
Early scoping can help to identify the im- portant issues and potential environmental effects associated with planned actions.
It can help to define scientific objectives and guide the design of ecological studies.