Problem Solving Coping
The effectiveness of problem-focused coping depends on whether the stressor can be managed by changing it (Laureate Education, Inc., 2012). Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. Carver (2011) found problem-focused coping had a biological effect on stress, lowering the cortisol levels and promoting recovery from the stress. Problem-focused coping could help her weigh her options and plan how she is going to accomplish the move. Emotion-focused coping could help her accept that she must move and it has the potential to help her find at least one benefit in moving. Effective Emotion-Focused Coping Strategy For example, when an individual's spouse is diagnosed with a terminal illness, the healthy partner cannot change the diagnosis. In this case, the most effective way to manage the stress is for the healthy partner to change his or her perspective or appraisal of the stressor (Laureate Education, Inc., 2012). Problem-focused coping has the potential to resolve her stress. By evaluating options, seeking information, and taking control of the situation, all of which are problem-focused methods of coping, the individual decided to have the event catered.
Biology-focused coping provokes a relaxation response, which lowers stress, and causes chemical changes in the body (Laureate Education, Inc., 2012; Dusek et al., 2008). Three methods of coping include problem-focused, emotion-focused, and biology-focused coping, and each is effective in specific circumstances (Laureate Education, Inc., 2012).When choosing an effective coping strategy, one must take into account the changeability of the stressor and the individual's reaction to the stressor, and the adaptability of the human body through changeable physiological responses (Laureate Education, Inc., 2012).It is more effective to effect change in the partner's emotional reaction to the diagnosis than it is to focus on changing or denying the diagnosis, although denial, too, is an emotion-focused means of coping (Laureate Education, Inc., 2012). Ineffective Emotion-Focused Coping Emotion-focused coping would not be effective when an individual is chronically late making their mortgage payment, although they have enough money to make the payment. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141456 Laureate Education, Inc. Folkman and Moskowitz (2004) found it relieved depression and anger in some circumstances. In addition, emotion-focused coping can facilitate expressing and processing emotions as a prelude to reappraising unchangeable stressors (Stanton, Kirk, Cameron, & Danoff-Burg, 2000). The purpose of this paper is to describe and provide examples for effective and ineffective problem-focused, emotion-focused, and biology-focused coping mechanisms and explain why each is effective or ineffective.In addition, its goal is to explain two approaches appropriate to address common ineffective coping mechanisms for parents of developmentally disabled children.Biology-Focused Coping Strategies Biology-focused coping involves utilizing techniques that modify behavior and affect the physiological stress response (Laureate Education, Inc., 2012). It is a coping strategy that focuses on the relationship between the mind and body and works toward affecting this relationship with relaxation techniques such as mindfulness, meditation, and deep breathing to effect physiological responses (Dusek et al., 2008).