Problem Statement For Research Proposal
Be judicious in your choice of exemplarsthe literature selected should be pertinent and relevant (APA, 2001). They are most often used in qualitative inquiry, although their use in quantitative inquiry is becoming more prominent.
Or, There is no difference between the mean grade point averages achieved by students in the upper and lower quartiles of the distribution of the Self-regulated Inventory.In studies aiming at grounded theory, for example, theory and theoretical tenets emerge from findings.Much qualitative inquiry, however, also aims to test or verify theory, hence in these cases the theoretical framework, as in quantitative efforts, should be identified and discussed early on.In quantitative studies, one uses theory deductively and places it toward the beginning of the plan for a study. One thus begins the study advancing a theory, collects data to test it, and reflects on whether the theory was confirmed or disconfirmed by the results in the study.The theory becomes a framework for the entire study, an organizing model for the research questions or hypotheses for the data collection procedure (Creswell, 1994, pp. In qualitative inquiry, the use of theory and of a line of inquiry depends on the nature of the investigation.In such cases, reviewers and/or committee members will have difficulty recognizing the problem.A problem statement should be presented within a context, and that context should be provided and briefly explained, including a discussion of the conceptual or theoretical framework in which it is embedded.A research question poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship as a question; a hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables (Kerlinger, 1979; Krathwohl, 1988).Deciding whether to use questions or hypotheses depends on factors such as the purpose of the study, the nature of the design and methodology, and the audience of the research (at times even the taste and preference of committee members, particularly the Chair).The practice of using hypotheses was derived from using the scientific method in social science inquiry.They have philosophical advantages in statistical testing, as researchers should be and tend to be conservative and cautious in their statements of conclusions (Armstrong, 1974).a no difference form in terms of theoretical constructs.