Problems Bureaucracy Essay Best Mba Essays
Weber also saw bureaucracy, however, as a threat to individual freedoms, and the ongoing bureaucratization as leading to a "polar night of icy darkness", in which increasing rationalization of human life traps individuals in a soulless "iron cage" of bureaucratic, rule-based, rational control.
argued for bureaucracy as a professional cadre, devoid of allegiance to fleeting politics.
Thinkers like John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx began to theorize about the economic functions and power-structures of bureaucracy in contemporary life.
Max Weber was the first to endorse bureaucracy as a necessary feature of modernity, and by the late 19th century bureaucratic forms had begun their spread from government to other large-scale institutions.
Although politics sets the tasks for administration, it should not be suffered to manipulate its offices".
This essay became a foundation for the study of public administration in America.
Still, in the modern world, most organized institutions rely on bureaucratic systems to manage information, process records, and administer complex systems, although the decline of paperwork and the widespread use of electronic databases is transforming the way bureaucracies function.
Karl Marx theorized about the role and function of bureaucracy in his Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, published in 1843.
In China, the Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) established a complicated bureaucracy based on the teachings of Confucius, who emphasized the importance of ritual in a family, in relationships, and in politics.But paradoxically, that led to even further growth of the bureaucracy.By the mid-19th century, bureaucratic forms of administration were firmly in place across the industrialized world.During the Song dynasty (960–1279) the bureaucracy became meritocratic.Following the Song reforms, competitive examinations took place to determine which candidates qualified to hold given positions.Mill referred to bureaucracy as a distinct form of government, separate from representative democracy.He believed bureaucracies had certain advantages, most importantly the accumulation of experience in those who actually conduct the affairs.In Philosophy of Right, Hegel had supported the role of specialized officials in public administration, although he never used the term "bureaucracy" himself. Marx posited that while corporate and government bureaucracy seem to operate in opposition, in actuality they mutually rely on one another to exist.He wrote that "The Corporation is civil society's attempt to become state; but the bureaucracy is the state which has really made itself into civil society." Writing in the early 1860s, political scientist John Stuart Mill theorized that successful monarchies were essentially bureaucracies, and found evidence of their existence in Imperial China, the Russian Empire, and the regimes of Europe.The 1980s brought a backlash against perceptions of "big government" and the associated bureaucracy.Politicians like Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan gained power by promising to eliminate government regulatory bureaucracies, which they saw as overbearing, and return economic production to a more purely capitalistic mode, which they saw as more efficient.