Research And Development Papermaking Industry
In keeping with the crosscutting theme of this report, the committee focused on materials technologies that would enable or improve the understanding and processing of existing and new products used by more than one IOF industry rather than on the development of industry-specific products.
In the Bayer process (used to convert bauxite to alumina), yields are relatively low; therefore, productivity (output and rate of production) is a key issue.
The market-pull for these technologies has increased with growing concerns about, and the need for, reductions of greenhouse gases.
Better tool and die materials with improved heat-extraction capabilities would be useful.
The modified process concept has been tested in a demo scale at Holmen Paper's paper mill Braviken in Norrköping.
"It is very interesting that, in a demo scale, we could find that several steps in the paper production process can be removed and still maintain the same paper quality," says Per Engstrand.
The production of aluminum is extremely energy intensive, and the use of consumable carbon anodes gives rise to emissions of greenhouse gases.
Inert anode and cathode technology for electrowinning of aluminum in primary electrolysis cells is the subject of extensive ongoing research.