Research Paper On Phylogenetics Of Elephants Wedding Photography Business Plan

We use a combined approach that incorporates both the deep paleontological record and more recent radiocarbon dates to calibrate the evolutionary rate, and infer the most comprehensive mammoth mitochondrial phylogeny to date.Using hybridization capture combined with high-throughput sequencing, we generated at least one-fold coverage of the complete mitochondrial genomes from 54 of 63 mammoth bones that we collected from sites across Eurasia and North America (Fig. In addition, we reassembled raw data from 79 North American mammoth mitochondrial genomes following the same bioinformatics pipeline as used to assemble our new genomes.

A key implication of this interpretation is that the steppe mammoth population in northeastern Siberia was ancestral to both Columbian and woolly mammoths although at different points in time.

However, we find strong support for a genetically distinct North American component to this lineage in Alaska/Yukon, which we therefore subdivide into haplogroups B1 (exclusively eastern Beringian) and B2 (European and Siberian).

Clade 2 (haplogroup A) probably originated in Asia and shares a MRCA ~810–360 ka.

Morphology-based taxonomic identifications are provided as rectangular bars to the right of sample names.

Nodes leading to major clades are labeled and highlighted as magenta dots, with the inferred t MRCA (95% highest posterior density of node ages, magenta numbers below the branch leading to the clade).

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