Stress Management Literature Review
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Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to take the highest level of research evidence (systematic reviews providing narrative synthesis or meta-analyses) and synthesise this evidence to identify the key findings and gaps in the literature on the effectiveness of different stress management interventions for preventing anxiety and depression as the main cause of absenteeism.
Stress is then seen to arise due to a discrepancy between the inputs and outputs and the mediating appraisal of stress, personal skills to manage it, and environmental demands and rewards.
Transactional models, as those proposed by Lazarus  and Cox and Ferguson , conceptualise stress as something that unfolds over time within a series of transactions between the person and their environment.
In order to consider the evidence base, there needs to be some agreement on the meaning of work stress.
A popular model of stress considers “inputs” such as job characteristics; for example, excess demands, low control, poor social support, adverse life events such as bereavement or divorce, and additional demands outside of work such as carer responsibilities for a dependent relative or spouse [7–10].