Term Paper Music Therapy A Research Paper Is A Brief Report
However the considerable delay involved in recording the BOLD signal, means f MRI can only be considered as an indirect measure of music perception/processing in .Although far less precise at illuminating changes in brain structures and connectivity, EEG methods offer greater sensitivity to the timing of brain activity, recording the faint electrical activity of the brain to millisecond accuracy, and with much less physical restriction than f MRI.The most common methods of neuroimaging relevant to music therapy are functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG).f MRI explores how different parts of the brain respond to external stimuli (i.e.music) in a resting state, and how the shape and connectivity of brain regions change over time.Blood flow responses to neural activity resulting from a change in blood-oxygen levels (blood oxygenation level dependent or BOLD changes) are measured, providing fine grained 3-D images to a high level of accuracy in terms of locating specifically where brain activity is.
Each author has highlighted the theorists and researchers who have influenced their thinking, and included references to their own research or music practices where appropriate.
A natural consequence of this overlap is the host of research collaborations between neuroscientists, music therapists, and other medical professions outlined in this paper.
This evolving field is underpinned by three aspects of neuroscience that are especially helpful to music therapy, enabling clinicians and researchers to: Mindful of space constraints, this paper will explore the implications for the music therapy profession from the literature in this evolving field in the last two areas only, offering readers pointers for further reading throughout.
Fachner (2016) outlined three core ways in which neuroscience methods may be used for music therapy research: (a) , where methods are focussed on the effects of specific musical features, and findings explored to identify brain based action mechanisms in the music therapy process. 2012; Bigand et al., 2015; Dalla Bella & Penhune, 2009,), which has been studied in detail from a music therapy perspective by Christensen (2012).
Hilleke and colleagues (2005) believe this type of research may address a failing of the music therapy literature, namely the abundance of heterogeneous, sometimes contradictory theoretical approaches that are hard to generalise to a wider multidisciplinary/international audiences. The increasing use of neuroscience methods by music psychologists, performance experts, and ethnomusicologists is also evident in a range of cross-disciplinary conferences in recent years e.g.