World Literature In Essay Ieee Research Paper Search Engine Optimization

Its , cited in a dozen of this volume's thirty-five essays, is Goethe's 1827 exhortation that "the epoch of World-literature is at hand, and everyone must strive to hasten its approach." Two hundred years later, the authors represented here take Goethe at his word by promulgating an idea of literature as a global system of translations and transitions, nearer at hand than ever, that comprises "all literary works that circulate beyond their culture of origin," as Damrosch writes in his lively 2003 prolegomenon, From this point of view, the foremost aim of literary study is to describe how cultural phenomena are lost, recovered, and transformed across a planetary entanglement that has always existed but only now insistently unfurls itself for the benefit of scholars—a splendid divulgement of the world, threatening only to the faint-hearted and regretted only by curmudgeons.

The extraordinary thing about is the ferment of scholarly activity it represents.

For all its aspirations to noble cosmopolitanism, world literature is haunted by parallel rubrics like the World Cup, which functions not least as a stage for nationalisms, and the world music and international fast foods that cater to weak-stomached first-world clienteles.

As the volume's editor quips, "The study of world literature can very readily become culturally deracinated, philologically bankrupt, and ideologically complicit with the worst tendencies of global capitalism.

It compels all nations, on pain of extinction [...] to become bourgeois themselves.

In a word, it creates a world after its own image." Their endpoint in utopian globalism notwithstanding, these lines would identify academic scholarship with the impersonal homogenizing violence from which its practitioners are anxious to distance themselves.

In this sense, its motives are those of international environmental movements, alliances of protectionist parties in the EU, and other efforts to adapt to or mitigate the challenges of a humanity exerting itself on a planetary scale.

World literature responds to the forces of globalization by identifying with them.

As a teaching anthology, is a tool of the professionalization process whereby, as Damrosch notes, large research institutions receive "raw material—undergraduates—produced by the colonies, they bring them to the metropolitan center for reprocessing, and they send them back out to the colonies, value-added, to teach the undergraduates." Although the Institute for World Literature advocates for the globe, its affiliates are inevitably located in North America, Western Europe, the Pacific Rim, and the Persian Gulf.

In the) as resulting from the historical cruelties that nonetheless, in the ultimate calculus, progress towards a united humanity and a rational global economy—the cultural equivalent, as Zhang Longxi points out, of the political slogan, "Workers of all countries, unite!

" The passage comes up a few times in this anthology, though no author is intrepid enough to quote its full context, which concerns the cheap commodity production that "forces the barbarians' obstinate hatred of foreigners to capitulate.

What is astonishing here is that excerpts from Sanskrit epic and ancient Chinese lyric, under the brand name "world literature," compete successfully in an ecosystem otherwise dominated by low-rent digital smut.

Some might evaluate this market phenomenon as proof of the lasting power and value of literary art, whose manifold expressions of the age-old human experience irrepressibly exert themselves through the world wide web—that paradigmatic technology that represents the sum of global knowledge in its sublime and uplifting, as well as frivolous and dismaying, aspects.

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  1. From her stories over a meal she bought for me, I learned that she was hiding from her husband who tried to stalk and kill her. I ran away from mom in order to obtain freedom, but ended up exposing myself to other potential dangers outside.